For the production and transportation of heavy unrefined oil from western Canada and the U.S. to be successful, the prices spread between a heavy crude product such as Western Canadian Select (WCS) and a light, sweet crude such as West Texas Intermediate (WTI) requires to be favorable. WCS crude is normally priced at a discount versus WTI crude due to the fact that of its lower quality and its greater distance from the U.S Gulf Coast refineries. Another is the large oil reserves and the quantity of financial investment already directed into unrefined oil production, as well as crude oils export prospects. The pipelines bring Canadian heavy crude south to U.S. refineries since American refineries were built and optimized to mostly deal with heavier unrefined oil, according to Rob Benedict, senior director of petrochemicals, transportation and facilities for the American Fuel and Petrochemical Manufacturers Association. Unrefined oil pipelines from Canada to the U.S. have actually been seen as an effective way to transport large quantities of Canadian heavy crude oil to U.S. Gulf Coast refineries.

For the production and transport of heavy unrefined oil from western Canada and the U.S. to be profitable, the rates spread in between a heavy crude product such as Western Canadian Select (WCS) and a light, sweet crude such as West Texas Intermediate (WTI) needs to be beneficial. Another is the vast oil reserves and the amount of investment already directed into crude oil production, as well as crude oils export potential customers. Crude oil pipelines from Canada to the U.S. have been seen as an efficient method to transfer large amounts of Canadian heavy crude oil to U.S. Gulf Coast refineries.

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